The NonVerbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs & Body Language Cues



By David B. Givens
(Copyright 2012)
(Spokane, Washington: Center for Nonverbal Studies Press)

Aboitiz, F., and R. Garcia (1997). "The Evolutionary Origin of the Language Areas in the Human Brain: A Neuroanatomical Perspective." In Brain Research Reviews (Vol. 25, No. 3, December), pp. 381-96.

Acredolo, Linda, and Susan Goodwyn (1985). "Symbolic Gesturing in Language Development: A Case Study." In Human Development (Vol. 28), pp. 40-49.

Akehurst, Lucy, Gunter Kohnken, Aldert Vrij, and Ray Bull (1996). "Lay Persons and Police Officers Beliefs Regarding Deceptive Behaviour." In Applied Cognitive Psychology (Vol. 10, Issue 6), pp. 461-71.

Alford, Richard (1996). "Adornment." In David Levinson and Melvin Ember (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology (New York: Henry Holt and Co.), pp. 7-9.

Allen, Henry (1995). "White Magic." In Washington Post (April 14), pp. D1, D2.

Altmann, Stuart (1967). "The Structure of Primate Communication." In Stuart Altmann, ed., Social Communication Among Primates (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), pp. 325-62.

Amato, Ivan (1992). "In Search of the Human Touch." In Science (Vol. 258, 27 November), pp. 1436-437.

Andermann, Frederick, and Eva Andermann (1992). "Startle Epilepsy." In Anthony B. Joseph and Robert R. Young (Eds.), Movement Disorders in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Scientific Publications), Ch. 66, pp. 498-500.

Anderson, J. (1972). "Attachment Behavior Out of Doors." In N. G. Blurton Jones (Ed.), Ethological Studies of Child Behaviour (Cambridge: University Press), pp. 199-215.

Andreasen, N. C. (1984). Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS; Iowa City: University of Iowa).

Andrew, R. J. (1963). "Evolution of Facial Expression." In Science (Vol. 142), pp. 1034-41.

Andrew, R. J. (1965). "The Origins of Facial Expression." In Scientific American (Vol. 213), pp. 88-94.

Angier, Natalie (1996). "Laughs: Rhythmic Bursts of Social Glue." In New York Times (February 27), pp. C1, C5.

Anonymous (N.D.). "Defusing Techniques." Outline provided by the Washington State Criminal Justice Training Commission.

Anonymous (1983). "The Kilogram That's Sent to France." In Parade Magazine (August 7), p. 16.

Anonymous (1990). "Black Rats." In The Daily Planet 1991 (July 2, The Nature Conservancy).

Anonymous (1992A). "Americans and Their Gadgets: Annual Unit Sales for Selected Products (Including All Brands)." In Washington Times (March 12).

Anonymous (1992B). "Masterpieces of Mesopotamian Art from the Louvre." In a pamphlet prepared by the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C., March 8-August 9).

Anonymous (1992C). "The Best & Worst of Everything." In Parade Magazine (December 27), pp. 4-8, 10-11.

Anonymous (1992D). "Rat and Mouse Care." In Science (January 31), p. 539.

Anonymous (1992E). "Your Answers on: Shopping." In Self (December, reader survey), p. 26.

Anonymous (1993). "You'll find our Mesh Knit has more of nearly everything--except flies, slubs and crocking." In Scientific American (July; advertisement), p. 75.

Anonymous (1993B). "Miscellany." In Chronicle of Higher Education (August 25).

Anonymous (1993C). "Nutrition Flash." In Self (February), p. 71.

Anonymous (1994). "Indiana U. Alums Rest Easy." In Chronicle of Higher Education (April 1, 1994).

Anonymous (1994B). "Making Up the Ancients." In Science (September 16, Vol. 265), p. 1655.

Anonymous (1995). "Footnotes," Chronicle of Higher Education, March 17, A8.

Anonymous (1998). "Civility Pays Dividends." In San Diego Union-Tribune (July 6), p. C-1.

Anonymous (2000). "Soft Drink Industry Criticized For Use of Caffeine." In Reuters Medical News (Reuters Health [on line], August 15; from Archives of Family Medicine, Vol.9, 2000, pp. 727-34).

Anonymous (2000B). "Amygdala Responds Differently When Individuals View Racially Disparate Faces." In Reuters Health (September 11; a report of findings published in NeuroReport [August 3, 2000, Vol.11, pp. 2351-2355]).

Anonymous (2000C). "Duplication Polymorphism in Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Linked to ADHD." In Reuters Health (September 15; report on findings published in Molecular Psychiatry [September 2000, Vol 5, pp. 531-536]).

Anonymous (2000D). "Medium Rare, Please." In Scientific American (November), p. 30.

Anonymous (2000E). "Green Killers." In Golf Journal (October), p. 7.

Anonymous (2001). "Problem in Golf May Have Physical, Psychological Causes." In Sports Medicine/MedscapeWire (web document, January 5).

Anonymous (2001B). "Snowplow Taken to Quench a Thirst." In Spokesman-Review (from wire services, February 4), p. A8.

Anonymous (2001C). "'Love Police' Stage Raids in Valentine Crackdown." In Spokesman-Review (AP, February 17), p. A5.

Anonymous (2001D). "Oregon Honors Tree at WWII Bomb Site." In Spokesman-Review (AP, April 8), p. B4.

Anonymous (2001E). "Tattoos on Teens Could Mean Trouble." In Spokesman-Review (AP, May 14), p. B8.

Anonymous (2001F). "Humans Get Blame for Mass Extinctions." In Spokesman-Review (from wire reports [reporting on a June 2001 article in Science], June 8), pp. A1, A7.

Anonymous (2001G). "Editor Bitten by Komodo Dragon." In Spokesman-Review (AP, June 11), p. A2.

Anonymous (2001H). "1,500 Chickens Cooked in Bid for Kebab Record." In Spokesman-Review (from wire reports, June 11), p. A3.

Anonymous (2001I). "Love Triangle Turns, er, Mushy." In Spokesman-Review (July 27), p. A4.

Anonymous (2001J). "After 5 Months, Shuttle Crew Ready to Return Home." In Spokesman-Review (AP, August 8), p. A7.

Anonymous (2001K). "Autism May Be Associated With Specific Regions of 4 Chromosomes." (MedscapeWire, August 24; web document summarizing article in American Journal of Human Genetics [2001;69(3):570-581]).

Anonymous (2001L). "Unsuccessful Robber Charged with Wielding Can of Ravioli." In Spokesman-Review (from wire reports, September 20), p. A7.

Anonymous (2001M). "The Best & Worst of Everything." In Parade (December 30), pp. 4-6, 8, 10-12, 15.

Anonymous (2001N). "Candy Wrapper Leads to Theft Suspects." In Spokesman-Review (from wire reports, December 29), p. A9.

Arai, Heii (2000). "Neurocircuitries in OCD." Paper presented at the XXIInd Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum (Day 4, July 12; web document).

Ardila, A. (1999). "The Role of Insula in Language: An Unsettled Question." In Aphasiology (Vol. 13, No.1), pp. 79-87.

Argyle, Michael, and Janet Dean (1965). "Eye-Contact, Distance and Affiliation." In Sociometry (Vol. 28), pp. 289-304.

Armstrong, David F., William C. Stokoe, and Sherman E. Wilcox (1995). Gesture and the Nature of Language (New York: Cambridge University Press).

Associated Press (1995). "Girl, 6, Stabs Friend, 7, over Barbie Doll." In San Diego Union (State Update, September 20).

Astor, Michael (2001). "Ready for the World?" In Spokesman-Review (Associated Press, May 21), p. A3.

Auster, Bruce B. (2000). "The Last Stitch is Dropped." In U.S. News & World Report (April 10), p. 16.

Ayto, John (1990). Dictionary of Word Origins (Arcade Publishing: New York).

Baile, Jeff (2000). "'Bowing Out' Means Trouble." In International Game Warden ("Face to Face" column, Fall), pp. 8-9.

Bailey, Richard W. (1991). Images of English: A Cultural History of the Language (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).

Bannister, Lawrence H. (1995). "Introduction to Human Anatomy." In Horne, Timothy (Ed.) Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Medicine and Surgery (38th Edition, London: Churchill Livingstone), pp. 1-15.

Barber, Elizabeth Wayland (1994). Women's Work: The First 20,000 Years (New York: W.W. Norton).

Barinaga, Marcia (1995). "Brain Researchers Speak a Common Language." In Science (Vol. 270, December), pp. 1437-8.

Barinaga, Marcia (1998). "fMRI Provides New View of Monkey Brains." In Science (Vol. 282, November 20), p.1397).

Bates, Brian, and John Cleese (2001). "Face to Face." In San Diego Union-Tribune (New York Times Special Features, August 22), pp. F1, F4.

Bateson, Gregory (1955). "A Theory of Play and Fantasy." In Psychiatric Research Reports (Vol. 2), pp. 39-51.

Bateson, Gregory (1968). "Redundancy and Coding." In Thomas A. Sebeok (Ed.), Animal Communication (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), pp. 614-26.

Baumgartel, Walter (1976). Up Among the Mountain Gorillas (New York: Hawthorn Books).

Baxter, James C., and Richard M. Rozelle (1975). "Nonverbal Expression as a Function of Crowding During a Simulated Police-Citizen Encounter." In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 32, No. 1), pp. 40-54.

Bayles, Fred (2000). "War on an Eyesore that Wrecks City Life." In USA Today (April 3), p. 3A.

Bechara, Antoine, Daniel Tranel, Hanna Damasio, Ralph Adolphs, Charles Rockland, and Antonio R. Damasio (1995). "Double Dissociation of Conditioning and Declarative Knowledge Relative to the Amygdala and Hippocampus in Humans." In Science (Vol. 269, 25 August), pp. 1115-1118.

Beller, Tom (1994). "True Blue." In Esquire (July, Special Section: Denim Style '94), pp. 102-05.

Bennett, Julie (2001). "A Heavy Burden." In Spokesman-Review (April 22, from Chicago Tribune), pp. D1, D4.

Berdecio, Susana, and Leanne T. Nash (1981). Chimpanzee Visual Communication: Facial, Gestural and Postural Expressive Movement in Young, Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (Arizona State University: Anthropological Research Papers No. 26).

Berreby, David (1994). "Figures of Speech: The Rise and Fall and Rise of Chomsky's Linguistics." In The Sciences (January/February), pp. 44-9.

Bernstein, D.A., A. Clarke-Stewart, L.A. Penner, E.J. Roy, and C.D. Wickens (2000). Psychology (5th ed.; Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co).

Birdwhistell, Ray (1952). An Introduction to Kinesics (Louisville: University of Louisville).

Birdwhistell, Ray (1970). Kinesics and Context (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania).

Bixler, Susan (1984). The Professional Image (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons).

Blakeslee, Sandra (1995). "In Brain's Early Growth, Timetable Maybe Crucial." In New York Times ("Science Times," August 29), pp. C1, C3.

Blass, Elliott M. (1992). "The Ontogeny of Motivation: Opioid Bases of Energy Conservation and Lasting Affective Change in Rat and Human Infants." In Current Directions in Psychological Science (August), pp. 116-20.

Bliss, Susan (1994). "Newly Formed Registrars' Council Keeps Track of SI Artifacts." In The Torch (January), p. 3.

Bloedel, James R., Timothy J. Ebner, and Steven P. Wise, Eds. (1996). The Acquisition of Motor Behavior in Vertebrates (Cambridge: MIT Press).

Blum, Miriam D. (1988). The Silent Speech of Politicians (San Diego: Brenner Information Group).

Blumenschine, Robert J., and John A. Cavallo (1992). "Scavenging and Human Evolution." In Scientific American, (October), pp. 90-96.

Blundo, Joe (2001). "Scientifically Speaking, Golf Enjoys Link to Prehistoric Man." In Columbus Dispatch (June 3).

Blurton Jones, N. G. (1967). "An Ethological Study of Some Aspects of Social Behaviour of Children in Nursery School." In Desmond Morris (Ed.), Primate Ethology (Chicago: Aldine), pp. 347-68.

Boomer, D. S. (1965). "Hesitation and Grammatical Encoding." In Language and Speech (Vol. 8), pp. 148-58.

Bond, Michael H., and Hiroshi Komai (1976). "Targets of Gazing and Eye Contact During Interviews: Effects on Japanese Nonverbal Behavior." In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 34), pp. 1276-84.

Bonino, Rick (1994). "Tiny Bubbles in the Nikes? Probably Not." In Spokesman-Review (January 1), p. B1.

Boslough, John (1985). Stephen Hawking's Universe (New York: Avon Books).

Bower, Bruce (1992). "Consciousness Raising: Theories Abound Regarding the Vexing Nature of Conscious Experience." In Science News (October 10), pp. 232-35 .

Bower, Bruce (1996). "Brains Hammer Home Categorical Knowledge." In Science News (Vol. 149, February 17), p. 103.

Bower, Bruce (1997). "Brain Structure Sounds Off to Fear, Anger." In Science News (Vol. 151, January 18), p. 38.

Bower, Bruce (2001). "Maternal Care May Leave Brain Legacy." In Science News (Vol. 160, November 3), p. 280.

Boyd, Robert S. (2000). "Scientists Look at How Adult Brains Change." In San Diego Union-Tribune (May 24), p. E-4.

Brannigan, Christopher, and David Humphries (1969). "I See What You Mean." New Scientist (Vol. 42), pp. 406-08.

Brannigan, Christopher, and David Humphries (1972). "Human Non-Verbal Behaviour, A Means of Communication." In N. G. Blurton-Jones, ed., Ethological Studies of Child Behaviour (Cambridge: University Press), pp. 37-64.

Brody, Robert (1983). "Anatomy of a Laugh." In American Health (November/December), pp. 43-47.

Bruner, J. (1978). "On Prelinguistic Prerequisites of Speech." In R. N. Campbell and P. T. Smith, eds., Recent Advances in the Psychology of Language (New York: Plenum Press), pp. 199-214.

Buller, D.B., J., Comstock, R.K. Aune, and K.D. Strzyzewski (1989). "The Effects of Probing on Deceivers and Truthtellers." In Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (Vol.13), pp. 189-204.

Burgoon, Judee K., David B. Buller, and W. Gill Woodall (1989). Nonverbal Communication: The Unspoken Dialogue (New York: Harper & Row).

Burne, Jerome (2000). "Why Smell Gets Up Your Nose." In Financial Times (April 8/9, 2000), p. II.

Calvert, Gemma A., Edward T. Bullmore, Michael J. Brammer, Ruth Campbell, Steven C.R. Williams, Philip K. McGuire, Peter W.R. Woodruff, Susan D. Iversen, and Anthony S. David (1997). "Activation of Auditory Cortex During Silent Lipreading." In Science (Vol. 276, 25 April), pp. 593-96.

Cannon, Walter B. (1929). Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear, and Rage, Vol. 2 (New York: Appleton).

Cantor, Carla (2001). "Vagus Nerve Stimulation Shows Promise in Treating Resistant Depression." In Medscape News (MedscapeWire, Internet document, May 9).

Carlson, Neil R. (1986). Physiology of Behavior, 3rd Edition (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.).

Carter, Rita (1998). Mapping the Mind (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Cervantes, Miguel de (1605). Don Quixote (New York: Viking Press, 1949).

Chalmers, David J. (1995). "The Puzzle of Conscious Experience." In Scientific American (December), pp. 80-86.

Chartrand, T. L., and J. A. Bargh (1999). "The Chameleon Effect: The Perception-Behavior Link and Social Interaction." In Journal of Personality and Social Psycholology (June, Vol. 76, No. 6), pp. 893-910.

Chandler, Raymond (1939). The Big Sleep (New York: Vintage Crime/Black Lizard, Vintage Books, 1992).

Chase, Richard A. and Richard R. Rubin, eds. (1979). The First Wondrous Year (New York: Macmillan Pub. Co).

Chelminski, Rudolph (1999). "Secret Soldier." In Reader's Digest (excerpt of Chelminski's book, Secret SoldierApril), pp. 200-201.

Cherkovich, G.M., and S.K. Tatoyan (1973). "Heart Rate (Radiotelemetrical Registration) in Macaques and Baboons According to Dominant-Submissive Rank in a Group." In Folia Primatologica (Vol. 20), pp. 265-73.

Chevalier-Skolnikoff, Suzanne (1973). "Facial Expression of Emotion in Nonhuman Primates." In Paul Ekman, ed., Darwin and Facial Expression (New York: Academic Press), pp. 11-89.

Clancy, Susan (2000). "SIS: The Immune System Filtering Friend from Foe." In Signals (a publication of the Salk Institute, La Jolla, Calif., Spring), pp.17-18.

Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. (1980). Tooth and Claw: Defensive Strategies in the Animal World (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd.).

Cohen, Richard (1993). "Thy Name, in Vain." In Washington Post Magazine (February 14), p.3.

Cole, Barry (1981). Television Today: A Close-Up View (readings from TV Guide; New York: Oxford University Press).

Collett, P. (1983). "Mossi Salutations." In Semiotica (Vol. 45), pp. 191-248.

Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space (New York: Grove Press).

Comita, Jenny (2000). "Star Smiles." In US Weekly (August 21), pp. 80-1.

Condon, George E. (2001). "Bush, Putin Build Ties, Put off Issues for Now." In San Diego Union-Tribune (June 17), pp. A1, A19.

Condon, William, and W. Ogston (1966). "Sound Film Analysis of Normal and Pathological Behavior Patterns." In Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (Vol. 143, No. 4), pp. 338-47.

Condon, William, and W. Ogston (1967). "A Segmentation of Behavior." In Journal of Psychiatric Research (Vol. 5), pp. 221-35.

Conn, Charis, and Ilena Silverman, eds., (1991). What Counts: The Complete Harper's Index (New York: Henry Holt and Co.).

Cooke, Michelle Beaulieu (2000). "Many Teens Have Signs of Nicotine Dependence After Only A Few Cigarettes." In Reuters Health (September 13; report on findings published in Tobacco Control [September 2000, Vol. 9, pp. 313-319]).

Craig, David Cobb (2000). "Jackie: Her Life in Pictures." In People Weekly (Book review, May 29), p. 42.

Cunningham, M. R., A. R. Roberts, A. P. Barbee, P. B. Druen, and C. H. Wu (1995). "Consistency and Variability in the Cross-Cultural Perception of Female Physical Attractiveness." In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 68), pp. 261-79.

Cunnington, R., J. L. Bradshaw, and R. Iansek (1996). "The Role of the Supplementary Motor Area in the Control of Voluntary Movement." In Human Movement Science (Vol. 15), pp. 627-647.

Cushing, Frank Hamilton (1883). Zuni Fetishes (Las Vegas: K C Publications, 1966).

Cytowic, Richard E. (1993). The Man Who Tasted Shapes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons).

D'Esposito, Mark, and Helen Wills (2000). "Functional Imaging of Neurocognition." In Seminars in Neurology (Vol. 20, No. 4), pp. 487-98.

Dalton, David (1984). James Dean: American Icon (New York: St. Martin's Press).

Damasio, Antonio R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons).

Darwin, Charles (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, third edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Davis, Alisha (2000). "Newsmakers." In Newsweek (Feb. 21), p. 53.

Davis, Flora (1971). Inside Intuition: What We Know About Nonverbal Communication (San Francisco: McGraw-Hill).

Davis, S.F., and J.J. Palladino (2000). Psychology (3rd ed.; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall).

De Lissovoy, Vladimir (1962). "Head Banging in Early Childhood." In Child Development (Vol. 33), pp. 43-56.

Deacon, Terrence (1992). "Primate Brains and Senses." In Steve Jones, Robert Martin and David Pilbeam, Eds. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 109-14.

Deacon, Terrence W. (1997). The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain (New York: W.W. Norton).

Dean, S.F.X. (1982). Such Pretty Toys (New York: Walker and Co.).

DeBarros, Anthony (2000). "Boundaries of Taste Shape Entertainment." In USA Today (April 3), p. 1A.

Delmar, Ken (1984) Winning Moves: The Body Language of Selling (New York: Random House).

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Diamond, Jared (1993). "Ten Thousand Years of Solitude." In Discover (March), pp. 48-57.

Diamond, M.C., A.B. Scheibel, and L.M. Elson (1985). The Human Brain Coloring Book (New York: HarperPerennial).

Dolhinow, Phyllis Jay (1972). "The North Indian Langur." In Phyllis Dolhinow (Ed.), Primate Patterns (San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston), pp. 181-238.

Doria, Kelly, and Joe Menard (2001). "Missouri Threats Surface: Men of Middle Eastern Descent Inquired About Purchasing Planes in Neosho, Local Men Say." In News-Leader (September 27).

Doyle, Arthur Conan (1976). The Complete Adventures and Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (New York: Crown Publishers).

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Eccles, John C. (1995). Evolution of the Brain: Creation of the Self (New York: Routledge).

Edmondstone, W.M. (1995). "Cardiac Chest Pain: Does Body Language Help the Diagnosis?" In British Medical Journal (BMJ, Vol. 311), pp. 1660-61.

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Efron, David (1942). Gesture and Environment (New York: Kings Crown Press).

Efron, David (1972). Gesture, Race and Culture (The Hague: Mouton).

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenaus (1970). Ethology: The Biology of Behavior (San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston).

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenaus (1973). "The Expressive Behaviour of the Deaf-and-Blind-Born." In Mario von Cranach and Ian Vine (Eds.), Social Communication and Movement (European Monographs in Social Psychology 4, New York: Academic Press), pp. 163-94.

Ekman, Paul (1984). "Expression and the Nature of Emotion." In K. Scherer and Paul Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to Emotion (Hillsdale, New Hersey: Erlbaum), pp. 319-44.

Ekman, Paul (1992). Telling Lies (New York: W. W. Norton).

Ekman, Paul (1998). Commentaries. In Darwin, Charles (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, third edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Ekman, Paul, and Wallace V. Friesen (1968). "Nonverbal Behavior in Psychotherapy Research." In John Shlien (Ed.), Research in Psychotherapy (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association), pp. 179-216.

Ekman, Paul, and Wallace V. Friesen (1969). "Nonverbal Leakage and Clues to Deception." In Psychiatry (Vol. 32), pp. 88-106.

Ekman, Paul, and Wallace V. Friesen (1969b). "The Repertoire of Nonverbal Behavior: Categories, Origins, Usage, and Coding." In Semiotica (Vol. 1), pp. 49-98.

Ekman, Paul, and Wallace V. Friesen (1971). "Constants Across Cultures in the Face and Emotion." In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 17, No. 2), pp. 124-29.

Ekman, Paul, and Wallace V. Friesen (1972). "Hand Movements." In Journal of Communication (Vol. 22, Dec. 1972), pp. 353-74.

Ekman, Paul, Wallace V. Friesen, and Sylvan S. Tomkins (1971). "Facial Affect Scoring Technique: A First Validity Study." In Semiotica (Vol. 3), pp. 37-58.

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Feldman, David (1989). When Do Fish Sleep? And Other Imponderables of Everyday Life (New York: Harper & Row).

Feldman, David (1991). Do Penguins Have Knees? (New York: HarperCollins).

Ferguson, C. (1964). "Baby Talk in Six Languages." In American Anthropologist (Vol. 66), pp. 103-14.

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Fishman, David J. (1992). "Out of the Mouths--and Hands--of Babies." In Discover (January), p. 66.

Flapan, Deborah (2000). "Location of Sense of Humor Discovered." In MedscapeWire (Internet document, November 30).

Flapan, Deborah (2001). "Alcohol Craving Region in the Brain Identified." In MedscapeWire (Internet document, May 1; news summary of study published in 2001 in Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 58, pp. 345-52).

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Fleishman, Sandra B. (1994). "The First Name in Footwear." In Washington Post (January 16), pp. F1, F4.
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Fowler, Brenda (1995). "Find Suggests Weaving Preceded Settled Life: Discovery pushes date of earliest cloth back 7,000 years, to 27,000 years ago." In New York Times (May 9), pp. C1, C10.

Frey, Jennifer (2001). "Barnum's Circus Minimus: The Modern History Of Animal Crackers." In Washington Post (December 28), p. C1.

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Friesen, W.V. (1972). Cultural Differences in Facial Expressions in a Social Situation: An Experimental Test of the Concept of Display Rules (University of California, San Francisco, Ph.D. dissertation).

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